Enabling 5G Neutral Hosts: 5GCity Architecture and Business Model

  • Abstract: Given the 5G development landscape, a Neutral Host architecture and business model has been developed within the 5GCity project, which essentially turns a city into a distributed, third party, multi-tenant edge infrastructure, capable to extend the cloud model all the way to the edge for dynamic, fast, and interoperable provisioning of 5G-based services.
  • Related Info can be read here: https://www.5gcity.eu/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/WhitePaper_Enabling-5G-Neutral-Hosts-5GCity-Architecture-and-Business-Model-v1.0.pdf
  • Authors: Antonino Albanese (Italtel, Italy), Antonio Garcia (Accelleran, Belgium), Gino Carrozzo (Nextworks, Italy), Carlos Colman-Meixner (University of Bristol, UK), Ioannis Neokosmidis (InCITES Consulting, Luxembourg), Michele Paolino (Virtual Open Systems, France), Apostolos Papageorgiou and Muhammad Shuaib Siddiqui (i2CAT, Spain); Maria Rita Spada (WindTre, Italy)
Neutral Host 6

On 5G Network Slice Modelling: Service-, Resource-, or deployment-driven?

  • Abstract: Network slicing has been one of the hottest topics in standardization recently, as telecom operators are intensively investigating its usage for operating isolated and independently configurable logical networks, in order to ease and promote the network sharing and neutral hosting business.
  • Related Info can be read here: https://zenodo.org/record/3757758#.XrBFkagzbIU
  • Authors: Gino Carrozzo (Nextworks, Italy),  Adriana Fernández-Fernández, Apostolos Papageorgiou and Muhammad Shuaib Siddiqui (i2CAT, Spain)

Definition and Evaluation of Latency in 5G with Heterogeneous Use Cases and Architectures

  • Abstract: This paper briefly introduces latency definitions and use cases evaluation scenarios from four 5G PPP Phase 2 projects: NGPaaS, 5GCity, 5G ESSENSE and MATILDA. Teams from these project are working towards achieving a common understanding of latency key performance indicators (KPI), trying to converge on common definitions and measurement methodologies to be applied
  • Related Info can be read here: https://zenodo.org/record/3801158#.XrQ-QagzbIU
  • Authors: Gino Carrozzo (Nextworks, Italy), Muhammad Shuaib Siddiqui (I2CAT, Spain), Roberto Bruschi, Oscar Carrasco, Kevin Du, Fotis Lazarakis, Bessem Sayadi, Janez Sterle

Enhancing the performance of 5G slicing operations via multi-tier orchestration

  • Abstract: End-to-end 5G network slicing that spans across diverse access and core networks, as well as cloud and edge infrastructure, promises to satisfy on-demand the requirements of different vertical applications in a fast and cost-efficient manner. This paper presents a solution based on a multi-tier orchestrator which glues NFV, MEC, and Cloud-native orchestrators using API abstraction layers and inter-orchestrator coordination workflows, while revisiting some standardized directives for NFV-MEC integration.
  • Related Info can be read here: https://zenodo.org/record/3796946#.XrRDz6gzbIU
  • Authors: Gabriele Baldoni (Adlink Technologies, France),  Miquel Puig Mena, Leonardo Ochoa-Aday, Apostolos Papageorgiou and Muhammad Shuaib Siddiqui (i2CAT, Spain)
Enhancing 5G Slicing

Secure location aware VM deployment on the edge through OpenStack and ARM TrustZone

  • Abstract: The paper presents the location-aware capabilities of a trusted EdgeVIM, work done by Virtual Open Systems as part of the 5GCity project. The goal of developing a VIM with integrated security features is to build a trusted edge based on the hardware isolation of ARM TrustZone. On top of that, the trusted VIM is used as a secure foundation to perform location-aware virtual machine deployment utilizing the dispersed nature of the infrastructure.
  • Related Info can be read here: https://zenodo.org/record/3757652#.XrAwwqgzbIU
  • Authors: Enrico Barberis, Michele Paolino and Teodora Sechkova(Virtual Open Systems, France)

Network Slicing-aware NFV Orchestration for 5G Service Platforms

  • Abstract: The paper presents a survey of how various network virtualization solutions address slicing, reviewing the management and orchestration tools available to implement network slicing, and describing the slice-aware orchestration platform designed for 5GCity. The 5GCity “Slice Manager” enables the virtualized and non-virtualized network elements and function to be easily logically segmented, configured and reused in order to meet various demands.
  • Related Info can be read here: https://zenodo.org/record/3757659#.XrAxFagzbIU
  • Authors: Hamzeh Khalili, Apostolos Papageorgiou and Shuaib Siddiqui (i2CAT, Spain); Dimitra Simeonidou, Carlos Colman-Meixner and Reza Nejabati (University of Bristol, UK); Gino Carrozzo (Nextworks, Italy)

View on 5G Architecture

  • Abstract: The 5G Architecture Working Group as part of the 5G PPP Initiative is looking at capturing novel trends and key technological enablers for the realization of the 5G architecture. It also targets at presenting in a harmonized way the architectural concepts developed in various projects and initiatives (not limited to 5G PPP projects only) so as to provide a consolidated view on the technical directions for the architecture design in the 5G era. The first version of the white paper was released in July 2016. The work has continued with the 5G PPP Phase II and Phase III projects with special focus on understanding the requirements from vertical industries involved in the projects and then driving the required enhancements of the 5G Architecture able to meet their requirements. The results of the Working Group are now captured in this Version 3.0, which presents the consolidated European view on the architecture design. 5GCity contributed to 5G architecture whitepaper versions 2.0 and 3.0, presented at EUCNC conferences.
  • Related Info can be find the this link: https://5g-ppp.eu/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/5G-PPP-5G-Architecture-White-Paper_final.pdf
  • Authors5G PPP Architecture Working Group

Deep Learning Inference on Commodity Network Interface Cards

  • Abstract: Artificial neural networks’ fully-connected layers require memory-bound operations on modern processors, which are therefore forced to stall their pipelines while waiting for memory loads. Computation batching improves on the issue, but it is largely inapplicable when dealing with time-sensitive serving workloads, which lowers the overall efficiency of the computing infrastructure. In this paper, we explore the opportunity to improve on the issue by offloading fully-connected layers processing to commodity Network Interface Cards. Our results show that current network cards can already process the fully-connected layers of binary neural networks, and thereby increase a machine’s throughput and efficiency.Further preliminary tests show that, with a relatively small hardware design modification, a new generation of network cards could increase their fully-connected layers processing throughput by a factor of 10.
  • Related Info can be find the this link: https://zenodo.org/record/3813152#.XrRWEKgzbIU
  • Authors: Giuseppe Siracusano (NEC Lab Europe, Germany), Davide Sanvito; Salvator Galea, Roberto Bifulco
Deep Learning

Assessment of CAPEX and OPEX for Media Services in Cloud enabled 5G Networks

  • Abstract: A techno economic analysis for a C-RAN architecture in a Crowded Events (CE) offering immersive video services is presented. The analysis shows that investments for an IVS in CE relying on edge cloud resources are viable with an expected payback period of 6.5 years. Index Terms-Techno economic analysis, Immersive video services (IVS), Small cells (SC), Network planning, 5G, Cloud-enabled radio access networks (C-RAN).
  • Related Info can be read here: https://zenodo.org/record/3757733#.XrA_b6gzbIU
  • Authors: Pouria S. Khodashenas (I2CAT, Spain), Claudio Meani and Pietro Paglierini (Italtel, Italy), Ioannis Neokosmidis and Theodoros Rokkas (InCITES Consulting, Luxembourg), Klaus Moessner, Karim M. Nasr.

Computing and Network Virtualization at the edge for 5G Smart Cities Neutral Host Infrastructures

Definition and Evaluation of Latency in 5G: A Framework Approach

  • Abstract: Latency as a key performance indicator (KPI) of 5G communication has attracted a significant amount of efforts from both industry and academia to provide the enhanced technology solution to meet the requirement of low latency from the diverse 5G use cases. This paper introduces a framework approach to define and evaluate latency in 5G based on the proposed 5G systems from four research projects. The use case and architecture are well studied to identify and analyse the contribution of latency
  • Related Info can be read here: https://zenodo.org/record/3757675#.XrAxtKgzbIU
  • Authors: Gino Carrozzo (Nextworks, Italy), Muhammad Shuaib Siddiqui (I2CAT, Spain), Roberto Bruschi, Oscar Carrasco, Kevin Du, Fotis Lazarakis, Bessem Sayadi, Janez Sterle

Path to 5G Smart Cities: Experiences from Media and Public Safety Pilots in 5GCity

  • Abstract: 5GCity is developing an architecture for the 5G-ready Neutral Host in which network slicing, SDN/NFV technologies, multi-access edge computing (MEC), and optimized lightweight virtualization platforms (e.g. based on unikernels) are all integrated to manage and orchestrate a distributed 5G cloud and radio platform. 5GCity has built city-wide pilots in the cities of Barcelona (ES), Bristol (UK) and Lucca (IT) where a number of media and public safety use cases are being simultaneously validated.
  • Related info can be found here: https://zenodo.org/record/3757684#.XrA646gzbIU
  • Authors : Gino Carrozzo (Nextworks, Italy), Muhammad Shuaib Siddiqui (I2CAT, Spain)

SDN-based Architecture in 5G EPON Nodes

  • Abstract: Design Considerations for an Energy-Aware SDN-based Architecture in 5G EPON Nodesis introducing a framework to base on SDN concept in order to prepare the EPON backhaul to deal with the 5G applications and services, and minimizes the energy consumption of EPON networks.  To maximize the benefits of the 5G EPON networks, besides all other challenges, it is essential to address two main issues, namely softwarization and energy efficiency.
  • Related Info can be find the this link: https://zenodo.org/record/3755446#.XrAvh6gzbIU
  • Authors: Hamzeh Khalili, Pouria Sayyad Khodashenas, Jose Ramon Piney, David Rincon , Sebastia Sallent and Muhammad Shuaib Siddiqui (I2CAT, Spain)

NFV-based Ecosystem for 5G Neutral Hosts

  • Abstract: Edge Computing Enhancements in an NFV-based Ecosystem for 5G Neutral Hosts -provide a solution that combines extensions in the orchestration and VIM layers, along with concrete solutions to the ETSI-identified open issues for NFV-MEC integration, in order to pave the way towards edge-aware NFV solutions for 5G neutral hosts.
  • Related info can be found here: https://zenodo.org/record/3755492#.XrAwR6gzbIU
  • Authors : Antonino Albanese (Italtel, Italy), Gabriele Baldoni and Michele Paolino (ADLINK Technology, Germany), Carlos Colman Meixner and Dimitra Simeonidou (University of  Bristol, UK), Paolo Cruschelli (Nextworks, Italy),  Hamzeh Khalili, Apostolos Papageorgiou and Muhammad Shuaib Siddiqui (I2CAT, Spain)

Techno Economic Assessment of Immersive Video Services in 5G Converged Optical/Wireless Networks

  • Abstract: The economic feasibility of a 5G media service in converged optical/wireless networks for crowded events in venues shows a ~6.5years payback period. Sensitivity analysis highlights the impact of tariffs and CAPEX on net present value. In this study, we focus on IVS offering for sporadic CE venues, like stadiums or concert halls. These venues are mainly characterized by their area and number of attendees. In particular, we considered a large stadium (e.g. Wembley) with a typical number of attendees of ninety thousands and an approximate area of 40000 m2
  • Related Info can be find the this link: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8386291
  • Authors: Claudio Meani and Pietro Paglierani (Italtel, Italy), Ioannis Neokosmidis and Theodoros Rokkas (InCITES Consulting, Luxembourg), Muhammad Shuaib Siddiqui and Pouria Sayyad Khodashenas (I2CAT, Spain), Karim M. Nasr, Klaus Moessner.

A novel pflua-based OpenFlow implementation for VOSYSwitch

  • Abstract: Software Defined Network (SDN) along with Network Function Virtualization (NFV) paradigms are emerging as a viable alternative to traditional network architecture. The Fog and Mobile Edge computing network and the Internet of Things infrastructure are adopting these concepts as well. In this context, virtual and SDN-enabled switches are crucial. This paper presents the novel OpenFlow software implementation of VOSYSwitch. Such OpenFlow implementation takes advantage of the library pflua and of the LuaJIT just-in-time trace compiler to translate OpenFlow flows into Lua code via the PCAP Filter language. Benchmarking activities have been performed to compare this new OpenFlow switch implementation with the de-facto standard OpenFlow switch solution OVS-DPDK.
  • Related info can be found here: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8364043
  • Authors: D. Dimitrov, J.Fanguede, M.Paolino and D.Raho (Virtual Open Systems, France)

Virtualized Infrastructure Managers for edge computing: OpenVIM and
OpenStack comparison

  • Abstract:  The evolution of the centralized cloud computing architecture towards the edge of the network, driven by virtualization technologies such as Software-Defined Networking (SDN), Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) and Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC), brings new opportunities to the multimedia industry. Offloading computing power to the edge, local caching, minimized latency and flexibility in the deployment of services are only some of the benefits that the multimedia can gain from utilizing the edge computing capabilities. To achieve such progress the potential elements of an edge computing framework have to be studied and evaluated. In this work, we focus on the component managing the edge resources which is defined as the Virtual Infrastructure Manager (VIM) in the MEC reference architecture. We analyze the time overhead which virtual machines (VMs) provisioning brings into the system. This is done by a comparison of two popular open-source VIM solutions, OpenStack and OpenVIM. We discuss and compare the logical architectures of the two VIMs and present the results of their performance evaluation. We extended the open-source cloud benchmarking framework CloudBench by adding a new cloud adapter for OpenVIM and used it to gather the cloud management metrics.
  • Related info can be found here: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8436858
  • Authors: Teodora Sechkova, Michele Paolino and Daniel Raho (Virtual Open Systems, France)

Enabling Vertical Industries Adoption of 5G Technologies: a Cartography of evolving solutions

  • Abstract: 5G network technologies are evolving in a tremendous pace, enhancing the potential for being adopted and exploited by vertical industries and serve advance networking requirements needs. Towards this direction, a set of 5G PPP projects are providing contributions for tackling aspects related to the overall lifecycle of 5G vertical applications design, development and deployment, including the activation and management of the appropriate network services. In this paper, a cartography of a set of novel solutions facilitating the adoption of 5G technologies by vertical industries is presented, aiming at identifying set of challenges and relevant solutions as well as potential synergies among the related projects.
  • Related info can be found here: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8442656
  • Authors: Anastasios Zafeiropoulos, Panagiotis Gouvas, Eleni Fotopoulou, George Tsiolis, Thanos Xirofotos, Jose Bonnet, Gino Carrozzo, Stamatia Rizou, Anastasius Gavras, Maria Barros, Xavier Costa- Perez, Athul Prasad, Marco Gramaglia, Anna Tzanakaki, Dimitra Simeonidou, John Cosmas, Mikael Fallgren, Raul Muñoz, Ricard Vilalta

Regulatory Considerations in the 5G Era: The 5GCity Neutral Host

  • Abstract:  The need for densification in 5G networks will necessitate the installation of large amounts of small cells in dense urban environments in order to meet future demands for capacity. The Neutral Host model has been proposed as a potential solution to this problem. This paper discusses the general regulatory considerations of 5G networks and specific considerations that relate to the Neutral Host model as this has been examined as part of the H2020 Project 5GCity.
  • Related Info can be find the this link: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-19909-8_10#citeas
  • Authors: Ioannis Neokosmidis, Theodoros Rokkas and Dimitris Xydias (InCITES Consulting, Luxembourg) and Maria Rita Spada (WindTre, Italy)

Unleashing the Power of Unikernels with Unikraft


  • Abstract:  Recent research has shown that unikernels, lightweight virtual machines tailored to specific applications, have great potential in terms of performance, tiny boot times, small memory consumption, and a reduced trusted compute base. Creating and optimizing them, however, is currently a painful, time-consuming process that often needs redoing for every application. With Unikraft, we introduce a system for automatically building unikernels that drastically reduces this time without negatively impacting performance.
  • Related info can be found here: https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3319647.3325856
  • Authors: Simon Kuenzer and Felipe Huici (NEC, Germany)

Cloud & Edge Trusted Virtulized Iinfrastructure Manager (VIM)


  • Abstract: The Fifth Generation (5G) mobile networks are promising greater data capacity and speed as well as enabling new applications and services. Cloud computing and virtualization have become an integral part of these networks that are today becoming more dynamic and agile thanks to cloud-native and edge computing technologies.  In particular, edge computing brings the benefits of reduced network traffic, location-awareness and low-latency while cloud-native solutions improve performance and reduce cloud services footprint. We propose a trusted edge computing infrastructure based on Arm edge devices. In addition, we add attestation extensions to OpenStack, one of the most widely adopted open-source cloud managers. The combination of a remote attestation integrated into the virtualized infrastructure management software and a trusted pool of devices brings a secure and trusted virtualized edge. We perform a series of measurements showing the trade-off between performance and increased security. The experiments are conducted using standard virtual machines (VMs), showing the worst-case scenario in terms of guest boot times. However, the same concept is still applicable when working with unikernels or containers which can achieve a faster boot.
  • Related Info can be read here: http://www.virtualopensystems.com/en/research/scientific-contributions/trustedvim-wcnc2019/
  • Authors: Enrico Barberis, Michele Paolino and Teodora Sechkova (Virtual Open Systems, France)

5G – Enabled Architecture on City Infrastructure for UHD and Immersive Media Production and Broadcasting

Are 5G Networks and the Neutral Host Model the Solution to the Shrinking Telecom Market

  • Abstract:  5G networks will offer advanced functionalities and features such as high throughput, low latency, security and reliability by leveraging technologi-cal advances like network virtualization, edge computing and network slic-ing. The latter will facilitate the entrance of new players in the value chain. Moreover, they will offer a means for network operators to change their business models in order to address revenue losses. The concept of a neutral host supported by the H2020 5GCity project seems to be a strong candidate for future business models helping network operators thrive in the new telecom era.
  • Related Info can be find the this link: https://easychair.org/publications/preprint/P5RW
  • Authors: Ioannis Neokosmidis, Theodoros Rokkas and Dimitris Xydias (InCITES Consulting, Luxembourg), Antonino Albanese (Italtel, Italy), Muhammad Shuaib Siddqui (I2CAT, Spain), Carlos Colman-Meixner and Dimitra Simeonidou (University of Bristol, UK)

fogØ5:Unifying the Computing, Networking and Storage Fabrics end-to-end

  • Abstract:  Fog computing aims at providing horizontal, system-level, abstractions to distribute computing, storage, control and networking functions closer to the user along a cloud-to-thing continuum.  In this paper, we explain the requirements of fog computing infrastructure and how they extend well beyond those traditionally addressed by Cloud Computing infrastructures; introduce fogØ5, a fog Infrastructure that unifies computing, networking and storage fabrics end-to-end, while addressing the challenges imposed by resource heterogeneity,  explain the novel architectural approach adopted by fogØ5 to have a server-less data-centric architecture that is scalable, secure, and highly resilient to failures, demonstrate the use of fogØ5 in some real-world use cases and conclude and reports on future works.
  • Related Info can be find the this link: https://zenodo.org/record/3715355#.Xq_ddagzbIU
  • Authors: Gabriele Baldoni and Angelo Corsaro (ADLINK Technology, Germany)

A practical approach to Slicing Wi-Fi RANs in Future 5G Networks

  • Abstract:  5G networks will offer advanced functionalities and features such as high throughput, low latency, security and reliability by leveraging technologi-cal advances like network virtualization, edge computing and network slic-ing. The latter will facilitate the entrance of new players in the value chain. Moreover, they will offer a means for network operators to change their business models in order to address revenue losses. The concept of a neutral host supported by the H2020 5GCity project seems to be a strong candidate for future business models helping network operators thrive in the new telecom era.
  • Related Info can be find the this link: https://zenodo.org/record/3757772#.XrBIbKgzbIU
  • Authors: Joan Josep Aleixendri, August Bletzer and Danil Camps-Mur (I2CAT, Spain)
Tenant Slice

5G city: A novel 5G-enabled architecture for ultra-high definition and immersive media on city infrastructure

  • Abstract:  The rapid adoption of cutting edge media services such as ultra-high definition (UHD/4K) video and immersive media i.e, virtual and augmented reality (VR/AR), will demand large investments in a scalable, ubiquitous, and robust communication infrastructure and services. The H2020 5GCity project aims to solve such issues and beyond while designing, developing, and deploying a sliceable, distributed cloud edge and radio 5G-platform with neutral hosting capability to support the sharing between information technology (IT) infrastructure owners and media service providers i.e., vertical media actors. 
  • Related Info can be find the this link: https://zenodo.org/record/3799742#.XrQ6rqgzbIU
  • Authors: Antonino Albanese (Italtel, Italy), Jordi Colom (Betevé – Barcelona Tv, Spain), Pedro Diogo (Ubiwhere, Portugal), Alex Mavromatis, Reza Nejabati and Dimitra Simeonidou (University of Bristol, UK), Hamzeh Khalili, Muhammad Shuaib Siddiqui (I2CAT, Spain), Alexandre Ulisses (MOG Technologies, Portugal), Luca Vignaroli (RAI, Italy)
5gcity oggi

Learning Short-Cut Connections for Object Counting

  • Abstract: Object counting is an important task in computer vision due to its growing demand in applications such as traffic monitoring or surveillance. In this paper, we consider object counting as a learning problem of a joint feature extraction and pixel-wise object density estimation with Convolutional-Deconvolutional networks. We introduce a novel counting model, named Gated U-Net (GU-Net). Specifically, we propose to enrich the U-Net architecture with the concept of learnable short-cut connections. Standard short-cut connections are connections between layers in deep neural networks which skip at least one intermediate layer. Instead of simply setting short-cut connections, we propose to learn these connections from data. Therefore, our short-cuts can work as gating units, which optimize the flow of information between convolutional and deconvolutional layers in the U-Net architecture.
  • Related Info can be find the this link: https://zenodo.org/record/3813490#.XrRPWKgzbIU
  • Authors: Daniel Oñoro-Rubio and Mathias Niepert (NEC Lab Europe, Germany)Roberto J. López-Sastre
Learning Short Cut